Renal Consequences of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Term Neonates: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the DOHaD Perspective in the Prevention and Early Recognition of Neonates of GDM Mothers at Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Renal Diseases in Later Life

Renal Consequences of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Term Neonates: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the DOHaD Perspective in the Prevention and Early Recognition of Neonates of GDM Mothers at Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Renal Diseases in Later Life

Abstract: Fetal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seems to stimulate a negative impact on the kidneys. Renal volumes and urinary biomarkers of renal function and tubular impairment and injury were evaluated in 30–40-day old newborns of GDM mothers (n = 139) who
needed insulin therapy during pregnancy. We found that neonates of mothers who maintained strict control over normoglycemia (n = 65) during pregnancy and fulfilled the other criteria of the GDM management program showed no differences compared to control (n = 55). Conversely, those
(n = 74), whose mothers did not maintain glycemic control and were not compliant to the management program, exhibited significantly lower levels of renal volumes and higher activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and cathepsin B. Differences due to maternal pre-gestational and gestational body mass index (BMI) as well as to maternal weight gain were demonstrated. Our findings indicate that a multidisciplinary approach, which involves an appropriate management of GDM, prevents the negative effects of GDM on the kidneys at 30–40 days of postnatal age, indicating the fundamental role of glycemic control, as well as of an adequate range of maternal weight gain.
Total renal volume, cortical volume, and urinary activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and cathepsin B may be suggested as indicators for the early recognition of GDM neonates at long-term risk of hypertension and kidney disease.